Sandpile models were the first models found to exhibit self-organized criticality. Grains of sand are added on a lattice, one at a time, until the amount of sand on a site exceeds a specific threshold value at which time that site collapses transferring sand into the adjacent sites. If this causes the amount of sand there to exceed the threshold, an avalanche of sand may start.
Sand leaves the model through the boundaries of the lattice. On a network you have no boundary, so you can either add ‘boundary nodes’, let sand dissipate gradually over time, during avalanches, or at the end of avalanches. How does this change the model?
Suitable for: First year project, Bachelor’s project, Master’s project
Main disciplines: Programming (any language), self-organization, complex systems, networks